Fears of openly gay troops were vastly overblown, according to a Pentagon report

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Ten years after the services first allowed gay and lesbian soldiers to serve openly, a report from the Joint Staff found that concerns about combat effectiveness and unit cohesion were unfounded.

That’s the conclusion of a 196-page document published in 2021 by the Joint Office of History and Research, recently highlighted by the Palm Center, a think tank that studies US military policy.

“The commander said he has no regrets about opposing the wartime change, explaining that he felt compelled to put aside his personal opinion and represent the majority view of combat Marines who are concerned about the elimination of ‘while reducing their cohesion and effectiveness on the battlefield,” the report said, citing comments made by then-top Marine Corps officer Gen. Jim Amos. What he needed to do at the time, Amos admitted that his anxiety was ‘in the wrong place.’ “

That sentiment came out two years later in a letter from Army Gen. Martin Dempsey, then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to Defense Secretary Leon Panetta.

“Following the 1-year anniversary of the repeal, combatant commanders provided their ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell (DADT) assessments and reported any impact on the military readiness, effectiveness, or cohesion of the Joint Force unit,'” he wrote.

The study began in 2012, joint staff spokesman Joe Holstead told Military Times on Wednesday, recognizing the “historical significance of the 2010 decision to repeal ‘don’t ask, don’t tell,'” and was released — but not made public — in April. 2021.

“Time and time again, opponents of equality claim that inclusion would damage America’s most important institutions and threaten the nation itself,” Aaron Belkin, director of the Palm Center, said on September 19. a statement. “And more often than not, that turned out to be false. This official military study clarifies the yawning gap between intimidation and reality, and should guide the conversation about similar claims now, such as the fear that gender inclusion in the United States is somehow a threat to our society.”

A week later, the Palm Center, whose research has focused heavily on the integration of LGBTQ forces, announced that it will close on September 30.

“Few organizations have figured out how to move the needle of military opinion as effectively as the Palm Center,” said Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, then the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, after the cancellation “don’t ask, don’t tell.”

“Her research and policy guidance have been invaluable in demonstrating that inclusive service is not onerous and will not undermine readiness,” he said. “The Palm Center has reshaped the national conversation about LGBT military service, using facts and research to fully demonstrate that inclusion makes our armed forces, and our country, stronger.”

A 2021 report from the Joint Staff includes a detailed history of discussions about allowing gay and lesbian soldiers to serve openly, including efforts in the early 1980s by President Bill Clinton’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” campaign. “policy in the ’90s, and many congressional and judicial challenges to the policy in the years before it was repealed.

Although service leaders had mixed opinions about whether openly serving gay and lesbian troops would affect readiness, everyone finally fell in line when it became clear that the Obama administration intended to change the policy.

“The study group also told Secretary [Robert] Gates that individuals who have worked with gays in the past tend to be more discouraged about serving gays and lesbians in the future than those who have not, and that respondents were sent to areas war. predicted that the effect of cancellation will actually be less during extreme conditions than during the reduction of the sea or the field,” according to the report, referring to an internal study of the Pentagon. “During the review,” the cochairs observed, “the military community became more familiar with the idea of ​​repeal.”

Although he was allowed to serve, the repeal of DADT did not eliminate the stigma of being gay for all service members.

A study published by the Journal of Sexuality Research and Social Policy in 2020 found that 59 percent of respondents are not satisfied that they are “off” at work, because they fear retaliation from their colleagues and management, or because they do not feel comfortable to stay. the general member of the sign responsible for teaching their peers.

“In short, LGBT service members look for an army whose disclosure will not result in negative professional consequences, burden their feelings of difference or expectations to teach others how to treat them, limit their ability to access needed resources. is for themselves or their family, and, finally, that their physical and personal integrity will not be threatened,” the authors, both military and academic researchers, found.

Meghann Myers is the Pentagon bureau chief for Military Times. It covers operations, policy, personnel, leadership and other issues affecting service members.

How long has pride been celebrated?

The first Pride march in New York City was held on June 28, 1970, the first anniversary of the Stonewall Rebellion. To see also : Opinion | Gay men deserve the unvarnished truth about monkey cups.

When does Pride History Month start? LGBTQ History Month originates from the United States as Lesbian and Gay History Month, and was first celebrated in October 1994. It was founded by Missouri high school history teacher Rodney Wilson.

How long has Pride been a thing?

The Pride Parade
FrequencyAnnually, usually in late June
Site(s)Locations in cities around the world
Active years52
InauguratedJune 27, 1970 in Chicago. June 28, 1970 in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco.

When did the first Pride start?

June is Pride Month, commemorating the Stonewall uprising, which began on June 28, 1969. On the same subject : Please say “happy”.

Who created Lgbtq Pride?

It goes back to 1978, when artist Gilbert Baker, an openly gay man and drag queen, designed the first rainbow flag. Baker later revealed that he urged Harvey Milk, one of the first openly gay elected officials in the United States, to create a symbol of pride for the gay community.

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What is the circle on the pride flag?

The fact that the circle is not broken is important because the intersex community continues to fight for physical independence against the medical history of “corrective” genital surgery. To see also : Timeline: Key moments in the fight for gay rights. A complete circle represents how complete intersex people are at birth (Source: Intersex Human Rights Australia).

What is the yellow flag in the red circle? Intersex Pride Flag – Created in July 2013 by OII Australia, the intersex pride flag uses yellow and purple, which are considered “hermaphrodite” colors, according to the organization. The central red circle is â unbroken and unadorned, symbolizing our completeness and completeness, and our power.â

What is intersex in pride?

That is, a person with an intersex condition is born with sex chromosomes, external genitalia, or internal reproductive organs that are not considered normal male or female.

What does being a intersex mean?

What does intersex mean? Intersex is a general term used for a variety of situations where a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not fit into the boxes of âfemaleâ or âmale. infants and children of the same sex to make their bodies conform to the binary ideas of âlabâ or âfeminineâ.

Is intersex the same as Nonbinary?

Being non-binary is not the same as being asexual. Most homosexuals identify as either male or female. Non-binary people are often non-binary: they are usually born with a body that fits conventional definitions of gender, but their birth gender identity is something other than male or female.

How does intersex happen?

This is someone with an XX chromosome and ovaries that are usually considered “female” but external genitalia that are usually considered “male.” This usually occurs when a female fetus is exposed to excess male hormones before birth (as can happen if the mother has a pituitary tumor or is exposed to testosterone…

Why was pink removed from the pride flag?

The first round of the flag consisted of eight stripes, each a separate color of the rainbow and hot pink. The demand for flags increased after the assassination of Milk in November 1978, and hot pink was removed due to the lack of clothing of that color.

What were the original colors of the pride flag?

Gilbert Baker designed the rainbow flag for the Gay Freedom Celebration in San Francisco in 1978. In the original eight-color version, red represents sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for the sun, green for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony and violet for soul.

What does the pink stand for in the pride flag?

The colors of the flag also represent the attraction of different genders. red symbolizes same-sex attraction, while blue represents opposite-sex attraction. The color purple represents the attraction of two or more genders, the definition of bisexuality. The Pansexual flag was created in 2010.

What does the pink yellow and blue flag mean Lgbtq?

Pansexual Pride Flag â The pansexual pride flag has three vertical stripes: red, yellow, and blue. According to most definitions, red represents female-identified people, blue represents male-identified people, and yellow represents unconventional attraction.

Why is there no pink in the rainbow flag?

In response, the Paramount Flag Company began selling a version using a rainbow fabric with seven stripes: red, orange, yellow, green, turquoise, blue, and violet. When Baker ramped up production of his flagship model, he dropped the hot pink stripe because fabric of that color was not readily available.

What do the different pride flags represent?

It represents the diversity of gay men and women around the world. In the original eight-color version, red represents sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for the sun, green for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony, and violet for spirit.

What do the pride flag colors mean?

It consisted of eight colored stripes stacked on top of each other to evoke a rainbow, a symbol of hope. The baker assigned a specific meaning to each color: pink for sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for sunlight, green for nature, turquoise for magic, indigo for tranquility and violet for spirit.

What does the 6 pride flag mean?

Each color on the flag had a special meaning. Hot Pink is a symbol of sex. Red equals life. Orange symbolizes healing. Yellow represents sunlight.

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What is blue pink white flag?

The first transgender flag is a pride flag with five vertical stripes in three colors – light blue, red and white. It was designed by American woman Monica Helms in 1999 to represent the transgender community, organizations, and individuals.

What is the asexual flag? Asexual Flag The four colors all have meanings: Black: Asexuality. Grey: Grey-Asexuality and Demisexuality. White: Asexual partners and allies. Purple: Community.

What is the Femboy flag?

Flags and Symbols The two red stripes indicate femininity, “girliness” or otherwise presenting femininity, and it is on both sides of the exterior because it is often the first thing associated with femininity (clothing or behavior). The white stripes represent transgender, non-binary, and other femboys.

What flag is for asexual?

The flag consists of four vertical stripes: black, gray, white, and purple from top to bottom. Black stripes represent sexuality, gray stripes represent the gray area between sexuality and gender, white stripes sexuality, and purple stripes society.

What are the Femboy colors?

The light blue from the gender-fluid flag is assigned to the female, the brown from the bear flag for the masculine attitude, and the dark blue from the gender-fluid flag for the male appearance.

What Lgbtq flag is pink and blue?

Transgender flag The trans flag was created in 1999 by Monica Helms, a trans woman. The flag was first raised at the Pride Parade in Phoenix in 2000. Light blue represents boys and red represents girls.

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What is the pink stripe flag?

The pansexual pride flag has the colors red, yellow and blue. The red band symbolizes women, the blue men, and the yellow non-binary. gender, such as gender fluid or gender fluid.

What are the red and blue flags? The Bisexual Pride Flag was created in 1998 by Michael Page. His idea for a flag means mixing red and blue to make purple. A way for both men and women to integrate into the straight and gay community. The colors of the flag also represent the attraction of different genders.

What flag has pink and white stripes?

Helms describes the meaning of the gender pride flag as follows: The top and bottom stripes are light blue, the traditional color of baby boys. The stripes next to them are pink, the traditional color of baby girls.

What is the pink striped flag?

The flag represents the transgender community and consists of five vertical stripes. Two traditional light blues for baby boys, two pinks for girls, with a white stripe in the middle for those who are transgender, who feel gender neutral or asexual, and those who are gay. .

Is there a polyamorous flag?

History: The original flag of polyamorous pride was created in the Pacific Northwest in the early fall of 1995 by Jim Evans, who wanted to make a secret symbol for the polyamorous community that could be recognized and shared with those who know the symbol.

What is the flag that is pink and white?

A change in color blue represents boys and red represents girls. White is used to label those who are transgender, those who feel they have a gender neutral or no gender and those who are mixed.

What is the Femboy flag?

Flags and Symbols The two red stripes indicate femininity, “girliness” or otherwise presenting femininity, and it is on both sides of the exterior because it is often the first thing associated with femininity (clothing or behavior). The white stripes represent transgender, non-binary, and other femboys.

What does the pink flag mean?

A change in color blue represents boys and red represents girls. White is used to label those who are transgender, those who feel they have a gender neutral or no gender and those who are mixed.

What is the pink flag for?

A change of flag The flag was first raised at Pride Square in Phoenix in 2000. The light blue represents the boys and the red represents the girls. White is used to label those who are transgender, those who feel they have a gender neutral or no gender and those who are mixed.

What does a plain pink flag mean?

A white pink flag is a new symbol of [LGBT] sexual orientation.

What is the pink and black flag?

A double-edged pink and black flag, like other anarchist symbols, is often associated with queer anarchism.

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